Description: Typically have two rows of cordons (Soloviev, 1912) that extend longitudinally and expand largely on the cervical region. Cordons are displaced ventrally so that deirids are dorsal to cordons. Parasites of birds (Anderson et al., 2009).
Life Cycle: Some species of Echinuria have an indirect lifecycle where eggs are passed into the environment through the faeces and ingested by water fleas. The worms develop in the L3 infective stage larva and upon consumption infect aquatic birds (Taylor et al., 2016).
Sources:Anderson, R.C., Chabaud, A.G., and Willmott, S. 2009. Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates. Archival Volume, p. 383-386.
Taylor, M.A., Coop, R.L., and Wall, R.L. 2016. Veterinary Parasitology. Fourth Edition, p. 63.