Description: "The left spicule consists of a cylindrical proximal portion and a guttered distal part measuring 197 (158–251) and as such represents 53% of the total spicule length. The tip is formed by a spiraled cap with a serrated border. The precloacal papillae are closely disposed to each other; moreover, the first and third pairs are smaller than the second and fourth pairs. Six pairs of postcloacal papillae, 5 being pedunculate, were observed. The first pair is located just posterioto the cloaca; the next 2 are found close to each other and some distance from the first pair, whereas the last 2 pairs, being located near the tip of tail, are considerably removed from the others. The only sessile pair is smaller than the others and is located midventrally to the last pair of pedunculate papillae. The phasmids lie just posterior to the last pair of papillae, close to the tip of the tail. In the male, the deirids are slightly asymmetrically disposed at distances of 112 (82–140) and 120 (91–152) from the anterior end. The vulva is located about 57% of the total length of the body from the anterior end. After redrawing the vagina vera and the uterina, measurements were 96(70–120) and 184 (150–250), respectively. Examination by light microscopy revealed the presence of small, refringent, membranous structures located between the pseudolabia and the interlabia" (Diaz et al., 2004).
Life Cycle: The lifecycle of P. adunca is indirect and utilizes amphipods and fish. When the L3 infective larvae are consumed by a bird, infection ensues. Further development occurs and the parasites migrate to the gizzard of the birds. Adult females produce eggs which are expelled into the environment through the feces (Anderson and Wong, 1982).
Sources: Diaz, J.I., Cremonte, F., and Navone, G.T. 2004. First record of the acuarioid nematode Paracuaria adunca from South America, with new morphological details and discussion of cordons. Comp Parasitol, Vol. 71, p. 238–242.
Anderson, R.C. and Wong, P.L. 1982. The transmission and development of Paracuaria adunca (Creplin, 1846) (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) of gulls (Laridae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 60, p. 3092-3104.