Life Cycle: Indirect life cycle where adults are found in the air sacs of herons and larval stages are found the eyes of fish (Anderson, 2000).
Medium sized to small worms found in air sacs of fish-eating birds. Spicules marked dissimilar in size and form. Small worms with well developed, tubular buccal cavity, generally with two lateral teeth. Lateral teeth of buccal cavity simple or bluntly tricuspid. Vulva generally near posterior end of oesophagus. Caudal extremity with or without spines. Parasites of herons and cormorants.
Sources: Anderson, R.C., Chabaud, A.G., and Willmott, S. 2009. Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates. Archival Volume, p. 392-403.
Anderson, R.C. 2000. Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission. 2nd edition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. p. 534.