Description: Medium sized to small worms found in air sacs of fish-eating birds. Spicules marked dissimilar in size and form. Small worms with well developed, tubular buccal cavity, generally with two lateral teeth (Anderson et al., 2009).
Life Cycle: When embryonated eggs are ingested by isopods sowbugs and pillbugs and development takes place until the L3 infective stages. After the parasite is trophically transmitted to the definitive host, a type of bird, the parasite develops further into L4, L5, and adult phases in the proventriculus or esophagus (Taylor et al., 2016).
Sources:Anderson, R.C., Chabaud, A.G., and Willmott, S. 2009. Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates. Archival Volume, p. 392-403.
Taylor, M.A., Coop, R.L., and Wall, R.L. 2016. Veterinary Parasitology. Fourth Edition, p. 63.