Life Cycle: When embryonated eggs are ingested by isopods sowbugs and pillbugs and development takes place until the L3 infective stages. After the parasite is trophically transmitted to the definitive host, a type of bird, the parasite develops further into L4, L5, and adult phases in the proventriculus or esophagus (Taylor et al., 2016).
Medium sized to small worms found in air sacs of fish-eating birds. Spicules marked dissimilar in size and form. Small worms with well developed, tubular buccal cavity, generally with two lateral teeth.
Sources:Anderson, R.C., Chabaud, A.G., and Willmott, S. 2009. Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates. Archival Volume, p. 392-403.
Taylor, M.A., Coop, R.L., and Wall, R.L. 2016. Veterinary Parasitology. Fourth Edition, p. 63.